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Fadhilatusy Syaikh Shalih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan (Mufti Saudi Arabia)

Pertanyaan :
Syaikh Salih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan ditanya : Fadhilatusy Syaikh ! Termasuk perkara yang dianggap remeh manusia sekarang ini adalah masalah ba'iat. Ada beberapa orang yang berpendapat boleh memberikan bai'at kepada salah satu kelompok Islam yang ada sekarang ini, kendati di sana ada bai'at-bai'at lain bagi kelompok lain pula. Kadangkala pemimpin yang dibai'at ini tidak dikenal dengan alasan masih 'dirahasiakan'. Bagaimanakah hukumnya bai'at seperti itu ? Apakah hukumnya berbeda di dalam negeri-negeri kafir atau negara yang tidak berhukum dengan hukum Allah ?

Bai'at hanya boleh diberikan kepada penguasa kaum muslimin. Bai'at-bai'at yang berbilang-bilang dan bid'ah itu merupakan akibat perpecahan. Setiap kaum muslimin yang berada dalam satu pemerintahan dan satu kekuasaan wajib memberikan satu bai'at kepada satu orang pemimpin. Tidaklah dibenarkan memunculkan bai'at-bai'at yang lain. Bai'at-bai'at tersebut merupakan hasil perpecahan kaum muslimin pada zaman ini dan akibat kejahilan tentang agama. Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam telah melarang itu, beliau bersabda.

"Artinya : Siapa saja yang ingin memecah belah persatuan kalian setelah kalian sepakat mengangkat seorang pemimpin maka tebaslah lehernya"

Atau sebagaimana sabda Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam. Jika didapati orang yang ingin membangkang pemerintah yang berdaulat dan berusaha memecah belah persatuan kaum muslimin maka Rasulullah telah memerintahkan waliyul amri berserta segenap kaum muslimin untuk memerangi pembangkang tersebut.

Allah Subhanahu wa Ta'ala berfirman.

"Artinya : Dan jika ada dua golongan dari orang-orang mu'min berperang maka damaikanlah antara keduanya. Jika salah satu dari kedua golongan itu berbuat aniaya terhadap golongan yang lain maka perangilah golongan yang berbuat aniaya itu sehingga golongan itu kembali, kepada perintah Allah, jika golongan itu telah kembali (kepada perintah Allah) maka damaikanlah antara keduanya dengan adil dan dan berlaku adillaj. Sesungguhnya Allah menyukai orang-orang yang berlaku adil" [Al-Hujurat : 9]

Amirul Mukminin Ali bin Abi Thalib Radhiyallahu 'anhu serta beberapa sahabat yang senoir memerangi kelompok Khawarij dan kaum pembangkang hingga berhasil ditumpas dan memadamkan kekuatan mereka sehingga kaum musilimin aman dari kejahatan mereka. Ini merupakan sunnah Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam, beliau telah memerintahkan kaum muslimin agar memerangi kaum pemberontak dan kelompok Khawarij yang berusaha memecah belah persatuan kaum muslimin dan membangkang pemerintah. Semua itu demi menjaga persatuan dan kesatuan jama'ah kaum muslimin dari rongrongan perpecahan dan perselisihan.


Pertanyaan :
Syaikh Salih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan ditanya : Apa hukumnya orang yang menisbatkan dirinya kepada salah satu jama'ah tersebut ? Khususnya kepada jama'ah yang menerapkan sistem sirriyah dan ba'iah terhadap pengikutnya ?

Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam telah mengabarkan bahwa perpecahan bakal terjadi. Pada kondisi demikian beliau memerintahkan kita untuk berpegang teguh persatuan dan isitiqamah di atas petunjuk Rasulllah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam dan sahabat-sahabat beliau. Rasulullah Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam besabda.

"Artinya : Umat Yahudi telah berpecah belah menjadi tujuh puluh satu golongan. Umat Nashrani telah terpecah belah menjadi tujuh puluh dua golongan dan umat ini akan terpecah belah menjadi tujuh puluh tiga golongan seluruhnya masuk Neraka kecuali satu. Para sahabat bertanya : "Siapakah golongan yang satu itu, wahai Rasulullah !" Beliau menjawab : "Siapa saja yang berada diatas pertunjukku dan di atas petunjuk sahabat-sahabatku"
Ketika para sahabat meminta wasiat kepada beliau, beliau Shallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam bersabda.

"Artinya : Aku wasiatkan kamu agar selalu bertakwa, patuh dan taat (kepada pemimpin) walaupun yang memimpin kamu adalah seorang budak. Sebab siapa saja yang hidup sepeninggalku ia pasti melihat perselisihan yang sangat banyak. Maka berpegang teguhlah kepada sunnahku dan sunnah Khulafa Rasyidin setelahku. Peganglah ia erat-erat dan gigitlah dengan gigi gerahammu (sungguh-sungguhlhah)"

Itulah pedoman yang harus ditempuh oleh kaum muslimin sekarang ini sampai hari Kiamat. Yaitu dalam menghadapi perselisihan hendaklah merujuk kepada pedoman Salafush Shalih dalam masalah apapun, terutama masalah dien, manhaj, bai'at dan lain-lain.

[Disalin dari kitab Muraja'att fi fiqhil waqi' as-sunnah wal fikri 'ala dhauil kitabi wa sunnah, edisi Indonesia Koreksi Total Masalah Politik & Pemikiran Dalam Perspektif Al-Qur'an & As-Sunnah, hal 59-63 Terbitan Darul Haq, penerjemah Abu Ihsan Al-Atsari]



Syaikh Abu Ubaidah Masyhur bin Hasan Salman


Syaikh Abu Ubaidah Masyhur bin Hasan Salman ditanya : Kami mohon dari anda untuk menerangkan perbedaan antara bai'at sunnah dan baiat hizbiyyah

Ikhwan sekalian, barang siapa yang paham menempatkan permasalahan di hulu niscaya akan selamat di hilir, kita harus mendudukkan istilah-istilah pada posisi sebenarnya. Karena tidak tepatnya meletakkan istilah akhirnya banyak orang kebingungan. Yang membaca karya-karya Syaikhul Islam khususnya karya-karya Ibnu Qayyim pasti akan menemukan berapa banyak penggunaan istilah-istilah yang keliru ini memporak-porandakan kebenaran.

Arti bai'at yang kami pahami dari nas-nas, tetap sebagaimana yang ada tidak ada yang baru, diantaranya Rasulullah bersabda.

"Artinya : Barang siapa yang mati dan tidak ada diatas pundaknya bai'at maka
mati dalam keadaan jahiliyyah".

Ketika Imam Ahmad ditanya tentang bai'at ini dia berkata: " Bai'at ini adalah bai'at untuk Imam."

Bai'at ini memiliki hukum-hukum khusus sebagaimana yang diatur oleh syariat. Dalam hadis panjang yang bersumber dari Abdullah ibn Amr ibn 'Ash sebagaimana yang diriwayatkan oleh Imam Muslim yang intinya Rasulullah bersabda.

"Artinya : Barang siapa yang membai'at imamnya dan mengulurkan tangan menjabatnya dengan sepenuh hati maka hendaklah mematuhinya sedaya mampu, jika ada imam lain yang muncul ingin merebut imamah darinya maka hendaklah kalian penggal leher orang tersebut. Dalam riwayat lain ; maka penggallah leher orang yang terakhir”.

Kami tidak mengetahui makna bai'at kecuali ini (yakni hanya untuk imam tertinggi,-pent) begitulah ditafsirkan bai'at pada hadis pertama tadi dengan hadis kedua. Jika kita tanyakan kepada kelompok-kelompok hizbiyyah yang menggunakan bai'at-bai'at versi mereka : "Apakah kalian akan menerapkan hadis kedua-- yakni memenggal kepala imam-imam lain yang dibai'at jamaahnya-- diluar kelompok kalian? mereka akan mengatakan tidak”.

Lantas kita katakan :" Kalau begitu bagaimana kalian membeda-bedakan hadis ini? Inilah yang disebut dalam istilah usul fikih dengan "at-tahakkum" yatiu perkataan sekehendak hati. Agama kita tidak dibangun diatas rasio. Adapun harakah yaitu pergerakan dalam dakwah. Kalimat ini tidak lagi diperdebatkan, bahwa jika disebut akan memiliki konotasi negative dan batil. Dan aku tidak tahu mengenai hal ini.


[Seri Soal Jawab DaurAh Syar'iyah Surabaya 17-21 Maret 2002. Dengan Masyayaikh Murid-murid Syaikh Muhammad Nashirudiin Al-Albani Hafidzahumullahu diterjemahkan oleh Ustadz Ahmad Ridwan , Lc]



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